Computer Ethics – References

[Alex Reid – 29-Mar-01/16-Apr-02/1-Mar-06/1-Mar-07/28-Jul-11/5-Aug-12/26-Jul-14/24-Jul-15/6-Aug-16/3-Aug-17/6-Apr-19/1-Aug-21/31-Jul-22 – links checked as at latest date]


Codes of Ethics:


Australian Computer Society Code of Ethics



Australian Computer Society Code of Professional Conduct



Australian Computer Society Code of Professional Conduct Case Studies



British Computer Society Code of Conduct



ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct



ACM/IEEE-CS Software Engineering Code of Ethics

<>  or



Computer Ethics Research Centres:


Australian Institute of Computer Ethics



The Computer Ethics Institute, Washington, USA

<> - temporarily unavailable.


The Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics, Computer Ethics Institute, Washington DC



The OnLine Ethics Center for Engineering & Science, at the (US) National Academy of Engineering



Software Engineering Ethics Research Institute, East Tennessee State University

<> - no longer in operation.


Markkula Center for Applied Ethics, Santa Clara University



ACS Committee on Computer Ethics/Professional Conduct



Centre for Computing and Social Responsibility, De Montfort University



IEEE Society on Social Implications of Technology (SSIT)



ACM Special Interest Group on Computers and Society (SIGCAS) <>


Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility



Institute for Certification of Computing Professionals



CERT & National Cyber Awareness System



AusCERT - Australian Cyber Emergency Response Team



Key Sites for AI Ethics:


CSIRO: Artificial Intelligence: Australia’s Ethics Framework Discussion Paper, April 2019:


Australian Government: Australia’s Artificial Intelligence Ethics Framework, 2020:


General Books, Journals and Articles on Ethics:


Kizza, Joseph Migga, Ethical and Social Issues in the Information Age, 5th edition, Springer, 2015


Bynum, Terrel Ward & Rogerson, Simon, eds: Computer Ethics & Professional Responsibility: Introductory Text & Readings, Blackwell, 2004


Edgar, Stacey L: Morality and Machines: Perspectives on Computer Ethics, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2003


Torvalds, Linus, Himanen, Pekka & Castells, Manuel, The Hacker Ethic, Secker & Warburg, 2001


Burmeister, Oliver K, Applying the ACS Code of Ethics, ACS Information Age, Feb/Mar 2001, pp54-59 [and in the subsequent 3 issues, Apr/May, Jun/Jul, Aug/Sep 2001]


Weckert, John (ed), Computer Ethics, Why Bother?, 2nd Australian Institute of Computer Ethics Conference, Canberra, Australia, Sep 2000 [published as Volume 1 of Conferences in Research and Practice in Information Technology]



Burmeister, Oliver K, Applying the ACS Code of Ethics, Journal of Research and Practice in Information Technology, May 2000, V32, n2, pp107-119


Moor, James H: Reason, Relativity & Responsibility in Computer Ethics, Computers & Society, v28 n1 March 1998, pp14-21


Spinello, Richard A: Case Studies in Information and Computer Ethics, Prentice Hall, 1997


Willard, Nancy, The Cyberethics Reader, McGraw-Hill, 1997

Ermann, M David, Williams, Mary B, & Shauf, Michele S (eds), Computers, Ethics, and Society, Oxford University Press, 1997


Weckert, John & Adeney, Douglas, Computer and Information Ethics, Greenwood Press, 1997

Tavani, Herman T, Metabibliography of Computers, Ethics and Society: An Annotated Bibliography of Bibliographies, Computers and Society, Mar 1997, pp19-21


Australian Computer Journal, vol29, no.1, February 1997: Special Issue on Ethics and the Internet.



Koocher, Gerald P, Ethics in Cyberspace, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996

Tavani, Herman T, The Future of Computers & the Quality of Life: A Computer Ethics Bibliography, Computers and Society, Sep 1996, pp31-37


Maner, Walter: Unique Ethical Problems in Information Technology, Science & Engineering Ethics, v2 n2 April 1996, pp137-154


Spinello, Richard A: Ethical Aspects of Information Technology, Prentice Hall, 1995


Neumann, Peter G, Computer-Related Risks, ACM Press, 1995


Landford, D, Practical Computer Ethics, McGraw-Hill, 1995


Johnson, Deborah G & Nissenbaum, Helen, Computer Ethics and Social Values, Prentice Hall, 1995


Forester, Tom & Morrison, Perry, Computer Ethics: Cautionary Tales and Ethical Dilemmas in Computing, 2nd edition, MIT Press, 1994


Johnson, D G, Computer Ethics, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, 1994

Anderson, Ronald, E, Using the New ACM Code of Ethics in Decision Making, Communications of the ACM, Feb 1993, v36, n2, pp98-106


Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo’s Egg: Tracking a Spy Through a Maze of Computer Espionage, Bodley Head, 1990


McFarland, Michael C, Urgency of Ethical Standards Intensifies in Computer Community, IEEE Computer, March 1990, pp77-81 [see also Letters section of June 1990 issue, p6] 1985


Mason, R, Four Ethical Issues of the Information Age, MIS Quarterly, v10, n1, 1986, pp5-12


Bynum, T W (ed), Computers and Ethics, Blackwell, 1985


Cornwall, Hugo, The Hacker’s Handbook, Century Communications Ltd, 1985


Parnas, David L, Software Aspects of Strategic Defence Initiative, CACM, 1985, v28, n12, p1326


Moor, James, H: What is Computer Ethics?, Metaphilosophy, v16 n4, 1985, pp266-275


Levy, Steven, Hackers, Penguin Books, 1984


Wiener, Norbert: Some Moral and Technical Consequences of Automation, Science, v131, 1960, pp1355-1358


Journal of Ethics and Information Technology



Computers & Society: Quarterly Publication of ACM SIGCAS (Special Interest Group on Computers and Society)

<> or <>


Other More Specific/Topical Articles/Websites:


The Ethics and Risks of AI Decision-Making: An ACS Primer (June 2021)



Australia’s Artificial Intelligence Ethics Framework: a voluntary framework developed by the Australian Government (November 2019)



Australian Computer Society 7-Part Series of Articles on Ethics, culminating in a Panel Discussion 11-Dec-18



AlgorithmWatch, AI Ethics Guidelines Global Inventory <>


Martha Lane Fox: Technology is a Marvel – Now Let’s Make it Moral, The Guardian, 10-Apr-2017



Hope Reese: When your driverless car crashes, who will be responsible? The answer remains unclear, TechRepublic, 7-Sep-2016



Andy Greenberg: Hackers Fool Tesla S's Autopilot to Hide and Spoof Obstacles, Wired, 4-Aug-2016



Nick Bostrom: Artificial intelligence: ‘We’re like Children Playing with a Bomb’, The Guardian, 12-Jun-2016



Kuipers, Benjamin: Towards Morality and Ethics for Robots, AAAI Spring Symposium on Ethical and Moral Considerations in Non-Human Agents, 21-Mar-2016



Merkel, Robert & Burmeister, Oliver: A Code of Ethics in IT: Just Lip Service or Something with Bite?, The Conversation, 9-Oct-2015



Brenda Aynsley: The Perils of 'Big Data' Without Ethics, The Australian, 14-Aug-2015



Ray Kurzweil: Don’t Fear Artificial Intelligence, 30-Dec-2014



Security Concerns of Bluetooth Technology, September 2010



Bowern, Mike, Codes of Ethics: The Ethics of Making Robots that can Kill, Information Age, Feb/Mar 2007, p62.


McDonald, Craig, Codes of Ethics: Governance, Systems and Responsibility, Information Age, Dec/Jan 2006/2007, p54.


Mather, Karen, Codes of Ethics: Protecting Whose Interests?, Information Age, Oct/Nov 2006, p38.


Lucs, Richard, Ethics: Why Do We Differ?, Information Age, Aug/Sep 2006, p28.


Bowern, Mike, Ethics: Part of Being Professional, Information Age, Jun/Jul 2006, p51.


Bowern, Mike, Ethics: Quality Management is Personal, Information Age, Feb/Mar 2006, p62.


UCITA Alert (27-Mar-06), Software Engineering Ethics Research Institute

<> - no longer exists.


Bowern, Mike & Weckert, John, Ethics: When a Team Member Embezzles, Information Age, Jun/Jul 2005, p24.


Raymond, Eric Steven, How To Become A Hacker, 2001



Kabay, M E, The Napster Cantata, The K-Files, 2001



Jacobs, Shannon, Sam Spam the Flimflam Man, Ubiquity, ACM, January 2001



Secure Digital Music Initiative, September 2000



SDMI Challenge FAQ, Princeton Group, 2000



Tannenbaum, Robert S, Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia: Some Ethical Concerns, Ubiquity, ACM, August 2000



Open Source Initiative